On March 17, 1858, St. Patrick’s Day, a secret Irish Fraternal organization, the Fenian Brotherhood, is established in New York to wage war in British Nort America. As early as 1866, Canada fears Irish invasions and attacks, because the Fenians have mounted several military raids, plots, and assaults against the young Canadian Confederation of 1867, including the assassination of Member of Parliament Thomas D’Arcy McGee in Ottawa in 1868. The Irish Republican Army (I.R.A.) will twice invade Missisquoi County in Quebec in 1866 and again in 1870.